Despite the apparent harmony of the grand procession in Edinburgh, however, there was a split in the suffragette ranks. Some WSPU members, such as Teresa Billington-Greig, became increasingly concerned about the perceived autocratic domination of the organisation by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst. In contrast, the Pankhursts and their supporters felt the necessity for a tighter operation in order to fight a militant campaign for the vote with no time to debate every decision with rank-and-file members.
Matters came to a head in autumn 1907 and 70 WSPU members left to form a new group called the Women’s Freedom League (WFL). Because of the high profile that Teresa Billington-Grieg and other leaders of the WFL had in Scotland, many of those that they had introduced into the movement now moved organisation. From the WFL materials in the archive we can tell that Caroline Phillips was tempted to join the WFL, but stayed loyal to the Pankhursts.